Synthetic lethality occurs when the loss of two or more genes results in cell death, whereas the loss of just one does not. In cancer cells, mutation or other alterations often lead to the loss or change of one of these genes, which may create tumor-specific vulnerabilities. Synthetic lethality in cancer treatment uses drugs to target these vulnerabilities, which are the result of genetic or pathological changes. This approach targets cancer cells’ inherent genetic weaknesses, allowing for highly precise cancer therapies. The result are treatments that are tailored to target specific testable alterations in patients’ tumors, leading to both more effective and less detrimental outcomes.